EXCERPT FROM APPENDIX A – NATIONAL AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS FROM ZAWIERCIE
“In 1939, shortly before the outbreak of the war, the Jewish-nationalist youth from all denominations were well organised in Zawiercie. Generally, nationalistic fervour was strong amongst all national-religious Jews in Zawiercie. Tens of national-religious pioneers travelled to Israel.
Nevertheless the overwhelming majority remained attached to their town – mostly because of family commitments. The mind was oriented towards remaining in the town. We continued believing in the “civilized world” and it did not occur to anyone that on the 1 September 1939 German airplanes would start bombing Zawiercie (already at 6 o’clock in the morning).”